Following our report that A3 adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist 1 exhibited a polypharmacological profile as a dual modulator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ/δ, we discovered a new template, 1′-homologated adenosine analogues 4a-4t, as dual PPARγ/δmodulators without AR binding. Removal of binding affinity to A3AR was achieved by 1′-homologation, and PPARγ/δdual modulation was derived from the structural similarity between the target nucleosides and PPAR modulator drug, rosiglitazone. All the final nucleosides were devoid of AR-binding affinity and exhibited high binding affinities to PPARγ/δbut lacked PPARα binding. 2-Cl derivatives exhibited dual receptor-binding affinity to PPARγ/δ, which was absent for the corresponding 2-H derivatives. 2-Propynyl substitution prevented PPARδ-binding affinity but preserved PPARγaffinity, indicating that the C2 position defines a pharmacophore for selective PPARγligand designs. PPARγ/δdual modulators functioning as both PPARγpartial agonists and PPARδantagonists promoted adiponectin production, suggesting their therapeutic potential against hypoadiponectinemia-associated cancer and metabolic diseases.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) grants (NRF-2016R1A2B3010164, 2018R1A5A2024425, and 2019R1F1A1063905) of Korea.
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