Diffusion, fusion, and confusion: Development cooperation in a multiplex world order

Paulo Esteves, Stephan Klingebiel

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Development cooperation (DC) is shaped by norms. We aim at filling a gap of research on DC by using the academic debates in international relations on norms. Contrary to interpretations that consider developed countries as norm-makers and developing countries as norm-takers, our analysis provides evidence that-and highlights how-Southern agents have influenced the processes of norm-setting and norm-diffusion for DC. The OECD was the dominant norms "entrepreneur" for a long period of time; more recently, developing countries have played a significant role in setting DC norms. We identify the diverging norms for official development assistance and South-South cooperation and the interrelationship between both norm systems. Thus, norm-making, norm-taking, and norm-diffusion of two competing norm clusters are key terms of the contribution.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Palgrave Handbook of Development Cooperation for Achieving the 2030 Agenda
Subtitle of host publicationContested Collaboration
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages31
ISBN (Electronic)9783030579388
ISBN (Print)9783030579371
StatePublished - 30 Nov 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2021.


  • Development cooperation
  • Norm-diffusion
  • Norms
  • OECD
  • Official development assistance
  • South-South cooperation


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