This study aimed to evaluate the differences in clinical characteristics and impact of carbapenem resistance (CR) on outcomes between Acinetobacter baumannii (Ab) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) bacteraemia. We prospectively identified all patients with Ab and Pa bacteraemia in 10 hospitals over 1 year. Treatment failure was defined as all-cause 30-day mortality, persistent bacteraemia, or recurrent bacteraemia within 30 days. We included 304 Ab and 241 Pa bacteraemia cases. CR was detected in 216 patients (71%) with Ab bacteraemia and 55 patients (23%) with Pa bacteraemia. Treatment failure was significantly higher in CR-Ab than in CR-Pa (60.6% vs. 34.5%, P = 0.001). In Ab, severe sepsis or septic shock and high Pitt bacteraemia score were independent risk factors for treatment failure in the inappropriate empirical antibiotics group. In Pa, hospital-acquired infection and high Pitt bacteraemia score were independent risk factors for treatment failure in both groups. CR was an independent risk factor in Ab for treatment failure in both groups, but not in Pa bacteraemia. We demonstrated significant differences in clinical characteristics and impact of CR on clinical outcomes between Ab and Pa bacteraemia, suggesting that different treatment approaches may be needed.