Diet-induced (taurine deficiency) dilated cardiomyopathy is reported more in large than small dogs possibly because taurine biosynthesis rate (TBR) is lower in large than small dogs. The TBR in 6 mongrels (37.9 ± 2.1 kg) and 6 beagles (12.8 ± 0.4 kg) was determined from the fractional dilution rate of urinary [1,2-2H2]-taurine, (d4-tau). All dogs were given a 15.6% protein, 0.60% sulfur amino acid (SAA) diet in amounts to maintain an ideal body condition score. After 3 mo, 14.6 mg/kg body weight of d4-tau was given orally and TBR determined from d4-tau to taurine ratio in urine collected each d for 6 d. Enrichments of d4-tau were determined by GC-MS. Thereafter, mongrels and beagles were paired by ranking of SAA intake per metabolic body weight per kg0.75. Each pair received the same amount of diet/kg0.75 for 2 wk, then TBR was again determined. Concentrations of taurine in plasma, blood, and urine and concentrations of plasma thiols were measured during each TBR determination. In Expt. 1, TBR and taurine concentrations in plasma and urine of mongrels were lower (P < 0.05) than those of beagles. In Expt. 2, TBR and taurine concentrations in blood and plasma of mongrels were lower (P < 0.05) than beagles. Together, the results support the hypothesis that large compared with small dogs have lower TBR when fed diets near-limiting in dietary SAA, but adequate to maintain ideal body condition.