Diet has a profound impact on the progression of metabolic syndrome (MetS) into various diseases. The gut microbiota could modulate the effect of diet on metabolic health. We examined whether dietary patterns related to MetS differed according to gut microbial enterotypes among 348 Korean adults aged 18–60 years recruited between 2018∼2021 in a cross-sectional study. The enterotype of each participant was identified based on 16S rRNA gut microbiota data. The main dietary pattern predicting MetS (MetS-DP) of each enterotype was derived using reduced-rank regression (RRR) models. In the RRR models, 27 food group intakes assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and MetS prediction markers including triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) ratio and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were used as predictor and response variables, respectively. The MetS-DP extracted in Bacteroides enterotype (B-type) was characterized by high consumption of refined white rice and low consumption of eggs, vegetables, and mushrooms. The MetS-DP derived among Prevotella enterotype (P-type) was characterized by a high intake of sugary food and low intakes of bread, fermented legumes, and fermented vegetables. The MetS-DP of B-type was positively associated with metabolic unhealthy status (ORT3 vs. T1 = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.5–8.2), comparing the highest tertile to the lowest tertile. Although it was not significantly associated with overall metabolic unhealthy status, the MetS-DP of P-type was positively associated with hyperglycemia risk (ORT3 vs. T1 = 6.2; 95% CI = 1.6–24.3). These results suggest that MetS-DP may differ according to the gut microbial enterotype of each individual. If such associations are found to be causal, personalized nutrition guidelines based on the enterotypes could be recommended to prevent MetS.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the research program for Agricultural Science & Technology Development (project no. PJ01488901) of the Rural Development Administration (RDA).
Copyright © 2023 Jang, Noh, Kim, Cho, Kim, Choe, Kim, Scalbert, Gunter, Kwon and Kim.
- gut microbiota
- metabolic syndrome