Background The clinical implication of bronchodilator response (BDR) is not fully understood. However, BDR is frequently present in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We identified the differences in clinical features regarding BDR. In addition, we divided BDR into BDR for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and BDR for forced vital capacity (FVC; i.e., BDR-FEV1 and BDR-FVC, respectively) and analyzed clinical significance. Methods We used data from the Korea COPD Subgroup Study, a multicenter cohort study of COPD patients recruited from 54 centers in South Korea since April 2012. We analyzed differences in baseline characteristics, 1-year exacerbation rate, and 3-year FEV1 decline between BDR negative and positive patients. Moreover, we analyzed the differences in clinical features between BDR-FEV1 positive and negative patients and between BDR-FVC positive and negative patients. Results Of the 2,181 patients enrolled in this study, 366 (16.8%) were BDR positive. BDR positive patients were more likely to be ever-smokers and to have a lower body mass index and higher symptom scores compared to BDR negative patients. Baseline FEV1 and FEV1/FVC were lower in the BDR positive compared to the BDR negative group (1.7 ± 0.6 and 1.6 ± 0.5, respectively, p < 0.01; 50.9 ± 12.1 and 46.5 ± 14.8, respectively, p < 0.01). BDR positive patients were more likely to have been diagnosed with asthma–COPD overlap and to receive inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) than BDR negative patients. BDR-FVC patients were more likely to be smokers, suffer from worse symptoms and have lower lung function than those with no BDR-FVC. BDR had no significant effect on 1-year moderate to severe or severe exacerbation rates or 3-year annual FEV1 decline. Interactive effects of ICS and BDR on the exacerbation rate were not significant in any group. Conclusions In this study, BDR positive patients were more likely to be ever-smokers and to have worse symptoms and lung function than BDR negative patients. BDR-FVC was associated with worse symptom control and lung function compared to BDR-FEV1. However, there were no significant differences in exacerbation rate or decline in lung function in any BDR group. In addition, the effects of ICS on exacerbations were not significant in any group.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by research funds from Dong-A University This research was also supported by funds (2016ER670100, 2016ER670101, 2016ER670102 and 2018ER670100, 2018ER670101, 2018ER670102) from Research of Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Copyright: © 2023 Choi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.