Dietary Habits, Food Product Selection Attributes, Nutritional Status, and Depression in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Dysphagia

Dahyeon Ko, Jieun Oh, Soyoung Joo, Ju Yeon Park, Mi Sook Cho

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4 Scopus citations


Dysphagia, which increases the risk of malnutrition and depression, is an important health concern. A total of 304 people aged 50 years or above (148 subjects with dysphagia and 156 non-dysphagia subjects) were recruited for this survey of dietary habits, meal product selection attributes, nutritional status, and depression. For group comparisons, chi-square tests were performed. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted for the meal product selection attributes. Correlation analyses were performed to investigate links between EAT-10 (The 10-item Eating Assessment Tool), nutrition (Nutrition Quotient/Nutrition Quotient for the Elderly, NQ/NQ-E) and depression (The Short-Form Geriatric Depression Scale for Koreans, SGDS-K). Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate links between EAT-10, nutritional status, and depressive status. Finally, a correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis of nutritional status, depression status, and some dietary factors were performed, targeting only the responses of the dysphagia patients. The average ages were 73.79 years in the dysphagia group and 70.15 years in the non-dysphagia group, and the total average age was 71.88 years. The overall age range was 50 to 92 years. Dysphagia (EAT-10) had significant effects on malnutrition (β = 0.037, OR = 1.095) and depression (β = 0.090, OR = 1.095) (p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between SGDS-K, needing help with meals, and the amount of food consumed at mealtimes (p < 0.01). The correlation coefficient between SGDS-K and the need for help with meals was 0.474. Dietary factors that affected depression in dysphagia patients were the increase in the need for meal assistance (β = 1.241, OR = 3.460, p < 0.001) and the amount of food eaten at mealtimes (β = −0.494, OR = 0.702, p < 0.05). Dysphagia can increase the risk of depression and malnutrition. To reduce depression in dysphagia patients, it is necessary to develop meal products that address dietary discomfort among patients with dysphagia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4045
Issue number19
StatePublished - Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was funded by the Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture and Forestry, grant project No. 321031032CG000.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • depression
  • dietary habits
  • dysphagia
  • nutritional status


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