Background: Capsule endoscopy (CE) has proven to be highly effective at detecting small bowel lesions, but studies regarding the diagnostic impact of CE on ileitis are rare. Aims: We evaluated the diagnostic value of small bowel CE for isolated ileitis observed during ileocolonoscopy. Methods: The CE results in 137 patients initially diagnosed with ileitis without colonic mucosal abnormalities on ileocolonoscopy at one of eight tertiary referral centers between October 2002 and June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Among the 137 patients with isolated ileitis observed on ileocolonoscopy, 117 (85.4%) revealed positive small bowel CE findings (85.4%). The rate of positive small bowel CE findings was 92.9% in cases of ileal aphthous ulcer or erosion, and 90.9% in cases of ileal ulcer. Among 117 positive CE cases, the most common final diagnosis by CE was Crohn’s disease (CD) (n = 44, 32%). No findings were identified in 20 (14.6%) of 137 cases. Ileal erosion/ulcer, rather than findings such as nodularity and erythema or elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (>10 mm/h), was significant predictive factors for positive CE findings in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Small bowel CE showed a high diagnostic yield (85.4%) in symptomatic patients with isolated ileitis on ileocolonoscopy. Erosion or ulcer of the small bowel was a common finding on CE (66.4%), and approximately one-third of patients were diagnosed with CD. In patients with isolated ileitis on ileocolonoscopy, CE should be considered to evaluate small bowel lesions when the patient shows an elevated ESR or when the ileitis manifests as ileal ulcer or erosion rather than a nodular or erythematous lesion.
- Capsule endoscopy