Background: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 protein (TREM-1) is a cell surface molecule expressed on neutrophils and monocytes, and it plays an important role in myeloid cell-activated inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic efficiency of soluble (s) TREM-1 in the patients who had pleural effusion from various causes. Methods: Forty-five patients with exudative pleural effusion were included in this study. The level of sTREM-1 was measured in both the serum and pleural fluids by immunoblot assay with using human-sTREM-1 antibody. Results: The pleural fluid sTREM-1 was significantly different in the three groups of exudative pleural effusion (p=0.011). Particularly, the patients with parapneumonic effusion were found to have significantly higher pleural fluid levels of sTREM-1 than patients with tuberculous (p<0.05) and malignant effusion, respectively (p<0.05). However, the serum sTREM-1 did not show a significant difference in the three groups. In order to evaluate the diagnostic utility of pleural fluid sTREM-1, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.818 (p=0.001). Using a cutoff value of 103.5 pg/mL for the pleural fluid sTREM-1, the sensitivity and specificity were 73% and 81%, respectively, for differentiating parapneumonic effusion from tuberculous or malignant effusions. Conclusion: Pleural fluid sTREM-1 can be an additional marker for making the differential diagnosis of pleural effusion.
- Pleural effusion
- Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 protein