microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous suppressors of target mRNAs, are deeply involved in every step of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development, from tumor initiation to progression and metastasis. They play roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, migration, invasion, and metastatic colonization, as well as immunosuppression. Due to their versatility, numerous attempts have been made to use miRNAs for clinical applications. miRNAs can be used as cancer subtype classifiers, diagnostic markers, drug-response predictors, prognostic markers, and therapeutic targets in NSCLC. Many challenges remain ahead of their actual clinical application; however, when achieved, the use of miRNAs in the clinic is expected to enable great progress in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with NSCLC.
- Non-small cell lung cancer