Pulmonary tuberculosis is still serious, one of the great public health problems in Korea. Recently, the increase in the aged population, human immunodeficiency virus coinfection, and drug-resistant tuberculosis have reinforced the need for improved rapid diagnostics and better treatment strategies. The basic principles of care for persons with, or suspected of having, pulmonary tuberculosis are the same worldwide. The standard guidelines and recent advances in diagnosis and treatment are summarized in this article. Prompt, accurate diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis should be established using chest radiography, sputum microscopy, and culture in liquid and solid medium. The further evaluation of chest imaging, histopathological examination of biopsy samples, nucleic acid amplification tests, immunological evaluation, and new molecular diagnostic tests supplement earlier, improved diagnosis, especially in patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Standardized treatment regimens of proven efficacy should be used with appropriate patient education and treatment support. The response to treatment and the presence of side effects of antituberculosis drugs should be monitored regularly. In addition, essential public health responsibilities and publicprivate collaboration must be carried out for effective patient care and pulmonary tuberculosis control.