Background: Thoracic actinomycosis is a relatively uncommon anaerobic infection caused by Actinomyces israelii. There have been only a few case reports of endobronchial actinomycosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical manifestation and treatment of endobronchial actinomycosis. Material and Methods: Seven patients with endobronchial actinomycosis, who were diagnosed in the past 10 years, were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Cough and sputum were the most common symptoms. The chest radiograph and computed tomography showed necrotic consolidation (n=3), atelectasis (n=2), mass (n=1) and an endobronchial nodule (n=1). Proximal broncholithiasis was observed in five patients. All cases were initially suspected to have either lung cancer or tuberculosis. In these patients, the median duration of intravenous antibiotics was 3 days (range 0-12 days) and the median duration of oral antibiotics was 147 days (range 20-412 days). Two patients received oral antibiotic therapy only. There was no clinical evidence of a recurrence. Conclusion: Endobronchial actinomycosis frequently manifests as a proximal obstructive calcified endobronchial nodule that is associated with distal post-obstructive pneumonia. The possibility of endobronchial actinomycosis is suggested when findings of broncholithiasis are present at chest CT. The traditional recommendation of 2-6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics and 6-12 months of oral antibiotic therapy are not necessarily essential in all cases of endobronchial actinomycosis.
- Anti-bacterial agents