To establish an in vivo radiation carcinogenesis model using glutathione S-transferase placental form positive (GST-P+) hepatic foci, newborn rats were irradiated once by 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy of gamma ray or 0.15 Gy and 0.6 Gy of neutron with or without 0.05% phenobarbital (PB). When the rats were sacrificed at the 12th or 21st week, the incidence of GST-P+ foci induction by radiation alone was very low. The neutron was more sensitive than the gamma ray at week 12 and the reverse phenomenon was observed in the groups at week 21. PB combination showed an increased incidence of GST-P+ foci in gamma ray irradiated groups. The neutron irradiation combined with PB did not show any significant difference compared with the corresponding PB untreated groups. We also investigated the combined effect of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 0.75 Gy of gamma ray irradiation. Intraperitoneal injection of 0.15 mumol/g body weight of DEN at 1 hour after gamma ray irradiation showed significantly increased the number and area of GST-P+ foci compared with those of DEN alone or DEN at 1 hour before gamma radiation (P < 0.001). From these data, after more defined experiments, an in vivo radiation carcinogenesis model will be established by radiation alone or a combination of radiation and carcinogens.