Development of a colorectal cancer diagnostic model and dietary risk assessment through gut microbiome analysis

Jinho Yang, Andrea McDowell, Eun Kyoung Kim, Hochan Seo, Won Hee Lee, Chang Mo Moon, Sung Min Kym, Dong Ho Lee, Young Soo Park, Young Koo Jee, Yoon Keun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common form of cancer and poses a critical public health threat due to the global spread of westernized diets high in meat, cholesterol, and fat. Although the link between diet and colorectal cancer has been well established, the mediating role of the gut microbiota remains elusive. In this study, we sought to elucidate the connection between the gut microbiota, diet, and CRC through metagenomic analysis of bacteria isolated from the stool of CRC (n = 89) and healthy (n = 161) subjects. This analysis yielded a dozen genera that were significantly altered in CRC patients, including increased Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Dorea, and Porphyromonas prevalence and diminished Pseudomonas, Prevotella, Acinetobacter, and Catenibacterium carriage. Based on these altered genera, we developed two novel CRC diagnostic models through stepwise selection and a simplified model using two increased and two decreased genera. As both models yielded strong AUC values above 0.8, the simplified model was applied to assess diet-based CRC risk in mice. Mice fed a westernized high-fat diet (HFD) showed greater CRC risk than mice fed a regular chow diet. Furthermore, we found that nonglutinous rice, glutinous rice, and sorghum consumption reduced CRC risk in HFD-fed mice. Collectively, these findings support the critical mediating role of the gut microbiota in diet-induced CRC risk as well as the potential of dietary grain intake to reduce microbiota-associated CRC risk. Further study is required to validate the diagnostic prediction models developed in this study as well as the preventive potential of grain consumption to reduce CRC risk.

Original languageEnglish
Article number117
JournalExperimental and Molecular Medicine
Volume51
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2019

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