Development and validation of the empowerment scale for woman with breast cancer

Sun Hwa Shin, Hyojung Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to evaluate empowerment in woman with breast cancer and to examine the validity and reliability of the scale. Methods: The development process for the initial items included a literature review, interviews, and construction of a conceptual framework. The identified items were evaluated for content validity by experts, resulting in 3 factors and 48 preliminary items. Participants were 319 women with breast cancer recruited to test reliability and validity of the preliminary scale. Data were analyzed using item analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, criterion related validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results: The final scale consisted of 30 items and 3 factors. Factors, including ‘intrapersonal factor’ (14 items), ‘interactional factor’ (8 items), and ‘behavioral factor’ (8 items), were drawn up after confirmatory factor analysis. Goodness of fit of the final research model was very appropriate as shown by χ2/df=1.86, TLI=.90, CFI=.92, SRMR=.06, and RMSEA=.05. Criterion validity was evaluated by total correlation with the Cancer Empowerment Questionnaire .78. Cronbach’s alpha for total items was .93 and test-retest reliability was .69. Conclusion: Findings from this study indicate that the scale can be used in the development of nursing interventions to promote the empowerment of women having breast cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)613-624
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Korean Academy of Nursing
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Korean Society of Nursing Science.


  • Breast neoplasms
  • Empowerment
  • Validation studies
  • Women


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