Development and Usability of a Virtual Reality-Based Filler Injection Training System

Seung Min Oh, Ju Young Kim, Seungho Han, Won Lee, Il Kim, Giwoong Hong, Wook Oh, Hyungjin Moon, Changmin Seo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Purpose: As filler procedures have increased in popularity, serious injection-related complications (e.g., blindness and stroke) have also increased in number. Proper and effective training is important for filler procedure safety; however, limitations exist in traditional training methods (i.e. anatomical illustrations and cadaver studies). We aimed to describe the development process and evaluate the usability of a virtual reality (VR)-based aesthetic filler injection training system. Materials and Methods: We developed the virtual reality hardware for the training system and a short guide, with a lecture regarding safe filler injection techniques. One hundred clinicians who attended a conference tested the training system. Participants completed system usability scale (SUS) and satisfaction questionnaires. Results: Nearly half of the participants were aged 35–50 years, and 38% had more than 5 years of aesthetic experience. The mean SUS score was 59.8 (standard deviation, 12.23), with no significant differences among the evaluated subgroups. Approximately 76% of participants provided SUS scores of more than 51, indicating acceptable usability. Participants aged 35–50 years were more likely to rate the system as having poor usability than were those aged < 35 years (odds ratio = 5.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.35–20.08). Conclusions: This study was the first to develop and explore the usability of a VR-based filler training system. Nearly three-fourths of participants indicated that the training system has an acceptable level of usability. However, assessments in precise target audiences and more detailed usability information are necessary to further refine the training system. Level of evidence IV: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1833-1842
Number of pages10
JournalAesthetic Plastic Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, The Author(s).


  • Aesthetic fillers
  • Complications
  • Intravascular injection
  • Training
  • Virtual reality


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