Development and Evaluation of Health Empowerment Scale for North Korean Women Defectors

Semi Lim, Younhee Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: This study developed an instrument to evaluate the health empowerment of North Korean women refugees and examined its validity and reliability. Methods: Through literature review and focused group interviews, 66 preliminary items with three constructs, including perceived control, perceived competence, and goal internalization were selected based on Menon’s psychological health empowerment model. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 239 North Korean women refugees in the community from August 31 to September 4, 2020. Content, construct, convergent, and discriminative validity were evaluated. Cronbach’s α was used to evaluate the reliability of scale. Results: The final instrument consisted of 31 items with three factors that were identified through confirmatory factor analysis. The convergent validity showed that the correlation coefficient was.52 (p <.001), which confirmed the validity of the developed measurement tool. Cronbach’s α for all the items was.94, and Cronbach's α for the factors was.76~.91. Conclusion: This health empowerment scale has been developed to include aspects of health empowerment, provide a conceptual framework, and offer objective indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of a health education program.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-91
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Korean Academy of Nursing
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Korean Society of Nursing Science.


  • Empowerment
  • Health
  • North Korea
  • Reliability and Validity


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