Developing a Perceived Social Media Literacy Scale: Evidence from Singapore

Edson C. Tandoc, Andrew Z.H. Yee, Jeremy Ong, James Chong Boi Lee, Duan Xu, Zheng Han, Chew Chee Han Matthew, Janelle Shaina Hui Yi Ng, Cui Min Lim, Lydia Rui Jun Cheng, Marie Ysa Cayabyab

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Through a series of 4 studies (focus group discussions involving social media users and 3 nationally representative online surveys) conducted in Singapore, we identify 4 types of competencies in which social media literacy can manifest: technical, social, privacy related, and informational. Using a sequential, exploratory mixed-methods approach, we first identified literacy events and practices that were grounded in social media users’ actual experiences through a series of focus group discussions. Then, based on the qualitative results, we developed and tested a perceived social media literacy (PSML) scale through a series of 3 national online surveys, where we found disparities in PSML based on socioeconomic factors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2484-2505
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Communication
StatePublished - 2021


  • digital literacy
  • media literacy
  • mixed methods
  • social media


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