Mitosis is a complex and dynamic process that is tightly regulated by a large number of mitotic proteins. Dysregulation of these proteins can generate daughter cells that exhibit genomic instability and aneuploidy, and such cells can transform into tumorigenic cells. Thus, it is important for faithful mitotic progression to regulate mitotic proteins at specific locations in the cells at a given time in each phase of mitosis. Ubiquitin-dependent modifications play critical roles in this process by regulating the degradation, translocation, or signal transduction of mitotic proteins. Here, we review how ubiquitination and deubiquitination regulate the progression of mitosis. In addition, we summarize the substrates and roles of some deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) crucial for mitosis and describe how they contribute error correction during mitosis and control the transition between the mitotic phases.