Abstract: Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) has been used as one of key ingredients in certain fermented foods due to it providing a unique hot and spicy sensation. In this study, volatile compounds—including degradation compounds of carotenoids—in fermented red pepper inoculated with Lactobacillus parabuchneri were investigated. In total, the contents of certain alcohols, benzene and its derivatives, esters, hydrocarbons, lactones, pyrazines, and terpenes were increased in red pepper inoculated with L. parabuchneri, while those of aldehydes, sulfur-containing compounds, and ketones decreased during the fermentation period. The contents of some degradation compounds of carotenoids (β-ionone, β-cyclocitral, α-ionone, and β-damascenone) increased significantly with the fermentation period. In particular, the content of β-damascenone—which could form by the degradation of neoxanthin—increased gradually during fermentation, but this compound was not detected in 0-day samples. These findings indicate that the contents of certain volatiles—including degradation compounds of carotenoids—in fermented red pepper inoculated with L. parabuchneri can change markedly during the fermentation process. Practical Application: This study investigated the changes of volatiles and carotenoids degradation compounds in fermented red pepper inoculated with Lactobacillus parabuchneri during fermentation. These results could be used to improve the quality of red pepper-based products and in the development of certain fermented foods, including Gochujang (fermented red pepper paste) and kimchi.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET) through the High Value-added Food Technology Development Program (No. 317035-03), funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) and the World Class 300 Project (10046955) of the Small and Medium Business Administration (SMBA, Korea).
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- Lactobacillus parabuchneri
- carotenoid degradation compounds
- red pepper