Conventional liquid–liquid extraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was improved for the determination of twelve synthetic musk compounds (SMs) in water samples by consideration of pH and organic solvents for extraction. Samples collected from eleven different points of the Han River estuary and a coastal area were analysed, and the overall concentration of SMs downstream of the Han River was higher than of the coastal area. The extraction efficiencies were above 74% for the twelve SMs from three different classes when using the optimum pH and extraction with dichloromethane (DCM). Results for method detection limit (MDL), method quantification limit (MQL)and recovery obtained by the established analytical method showed that it is adequate for the determination of SMs in real samples. Among the SMs, Galaxolide (HHCB) and Iso E Super (OTNE) had the highest concentrations and detection frequencies. By using the established analytical method, our study showed regional and seasonal distribution of SMs originated from the Han River in estuary and coastal areas.
|Number of pages
|International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry
|Published - 2023
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
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- Han River
- Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE)
- coastal area
- gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)
- synthetic musk compounds (SMs)