Determination of toxic metal release from metallic kitchen utensils and their health risks

Ye Ji Koo, Eun Chul Pack, Ye Jin Lee, Hyung Soo Kim, Dae Yong Jang, Seung Ha Lee, Young Soon Kim, Kyung Min Lim, Dal Woong Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


The effect of simulants, repeated use, washing, and oiling on the release of toxic metals from metallic kitchen utensils was investigated. The release of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb from kitchen utensils composed of stainless steel, aluminum, copper alloy, and cast iron into food simulants was quantified using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The results show that this release of toxic metals was highly dependent on pH. Generally, the release of toxic metals tended to decrease with repeated use, and the release of Cr and Ni from stainless steel samples was significantly higher in the first test, compared to the third test. The washing conditions affected the release of As and Cr, whose release levels were higher when washing only with water and with a steel wool pad, respectively. Furthermore, oiling cast iron cookware reduced the release of As, Cd, Cr, and Ni into acidic simulants by 66%, 83%, 71%, and 15%, respectively. The margin of exposure (MOE) was calculated for each toxic metal; the calculated MOE values indicated that it is improbable that the current level of exposure from metallic kitchen utensils would pose a health risk in Korea.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111651
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
StatePublished - Nov 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by a grant ( 20163MFDS020 ) from Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Republic of Korea , and a Korea University grant.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd


  • Food simulant
  • Heavy metal
  • Kitchen utensils
  • Margin of exposure
  • Metal and alloys


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