Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems are ubiquitous in various commercial applications. These systems typically rely on machine learning techniques for transcribing voice commands into text for further processing. Despite their success in many applications, audio Adversarial Examples (AEs) have emerged as a major security threat to ASR systems. This is because audio AEs are able to fool ASR models into producing incorrect results. While researchers have investigated methods for defending against audio AEs, the intrinsic properties of AEs and benign audio are not well studied. The work in this paper shows that the machine learning decision boundary patterns around audio AEs and benign audio are fundamentally different. Using dimensionality-reduction techniques, this work shows that these different patterns can be visually distinguished in two-dimensional (2D) space. This in turn allows for the detection of audio AEs using anomal- detection methods.
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- adversarial example detection
- adversarial examples
- adversarial machine learning
- automatic speech recognition