Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have often been reported to suffer from depression and anxiety possibly due to the exacerbation, hospitalization and mortality of COPD. However,scarce data are available in Korea. This study assessed degree of depression and anxiety, and evaluated the factors associated with depressive symptoms in COPD. Methods: The cross-sectional data on the lung function measurements, smoking behavior, body mass index (BMI), age, gender, depressive symptoms using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were evaluated in 72 outpatients with COPD and 50 controls without underling lung diseases from September, 2005 to October, 2006 in the Ewha medical center. Results: 1) The age, body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin levels were similar in the patients and controls. The BDI scores (16(0-37) vs. 12(1-30), p=0.001) and the prevalence of depression (36% vs. 6%, p<0.0001) were higher in the COPD patients than in the controls. In the COPD group, the prevalence of depression increased with increasing GOLD stage (p=0.008). The prevalence was 18%(4/22), in mild cases, 30%(6/20) in moderate cases, 52%(13/25) in severe cases and 60%(3/5) in very severe cases. 2) The SAI and TAI scores were higher in the COPD patients (44(20-67) and 47(20-66)) than in the healthy controls (39(26-65) and 44(33-90)). There were a significant correlation between the depression and anxiety scores (p<0.001). 3) A lower BMI, lower postbronchodilator FEV1, current smoking behavior and severity of COPD were univariately associated with the depressive group in COPD, 4) while multivariate logistic analysis revealed only the severe-to-very severe group (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 12.9) to be independently associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusion: COPD is strongly associated with depression and anxiety. Therfore, screening for psychological problems in COPD patients is essential, particularly in patients with severe-to-very severe COPD.
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease