Defining “Fake News”: A typology of scholarly definitions

Edson C. Tandoc, Zheng Wei Lim, Richard Ling

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

974 Scopus citations


This paper is based on a review of how previous studies have defined and operationalized the term “fake news.” An examination of 34 academic articles that used the term “fake news” between 2003 and 2017 resulted in a typology of types of fake news: news satire, news parody, fabrication, manipulation, advertising, and propaganda. These definitions are based on two dimensions: levels of facticity and deception. Such a typology is offered to clarify what we mean by fake news and to guide future studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-153
Number of pages17
JournalDigital Journalism
Issue number2
StatePublished - 7 Feb 2018


  • facts
  • fake news
  • false news
  • misinformation
  • news
  • parody
  • satire


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