Defending AirType Against Inference Attacks Using 3D In-Air Keyboard Layouts: Design and Evaluation

Hattan Althebeiti, Ran Gedawy, Ahod Alghuried, Daehun Nyang, David Mohaisen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Augmented reality (AR) interaction methods are leaning towards more natural techniques, such as voice commands, hand gestures, and in-air tapping for input. From a security perspective, however, recent works have demonstrated that these methods, such as in-air tapping, are vulnerable to inference attacks where an adversary is capable of reconstructing input in the virtual environment using low-level hand-tracking data with high accuracy. This paper addresses the defense of in-air tapping mechanisms against inference attacks by developing and evaluating a 3D curved keyboard for input. Our design exploits the symmetry between the virtual and physical worlds enabling the inference attack in the first place and increasing the uncertainty of the adversary by manipulating the geometric aspects of this keyboard plane in 3D. We evaluate our design through numerous experiments and show it to be robust against inference attacks, where the adversary’s accuracy in obtaining the correct input text is reduced to 0% (from 87%) and at most to just 18% within the top-500 candidate reconstructions.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInformation Security Applications - 24th International Conference, WISA 2023, Jeju Island, South Korea, August 23–25, 2023, Revised Selected Papers
EditorsHowon Kim, Jonghee Youn
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages16
ISBN (Print)9789819980239
StatePublished - 2024
Event24th International Conference on Information Security Applications, WISA 2023 - Jeju Island, Korea, Republic of
Duration: 23 Aug 202325 Aug 2023

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume14402 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference24th International Conference on Information Security Applications, WISA 2023
Country/TerritoryKorea, Republic of
CityJeju Island

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.


  • AR/VR
  • Defense
  • Inference
  • Privacy


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