One-step fabrication method for thin films and shells is developed with nature-derived eggshell membrane hydrolysates (ESMHs) and coffee melanoidins (CMs) that have been discarded as food waste. The nature-derived polymeric materials, ESMHs and CMs, prove highly biocompatible with living cells, and the one-step method enables cytocompatible construction of cell-in-shell nanobiohybrid structures. Nanometric ESMH-CM shells are formed on individual probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus, without any noticeable decrease in viability, and the ESMH-CM shells effectively protected L. acidophilus in the simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The cytoprotection power is further enhanced by Fe3+-mediated shell augmentation. For example, after 2 h of incubation in SGF, the viability of native L. acidophilus is 30%, whereas nanoencapsulated L. acidophilus, armed with the Fe3+-fortified ESMH-CM shells, show 79% in viability. The simple, time-efficient, and easy-to-process method developed in this work would contribute to many technological developments, including microbial biotherapeutics, as well as waste upcycling.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (MSIP) (2021R1A3A3002527 and 2021R1F1A1063108). Part of the work was supported by Hansol RootOne, Inc.
© 2023 by the authors.
- Lactobacillus acidophilus
- coffee melanoidins
- eggshell membrane hydrolysates
- single-cell nanoencapsulation