FVB and BALB/c mice show different morbidity, development of Clonorchis sinensis, and pathological changes following C. sinensis infection. FVB mice are susceptible and BALB/c mice are relatively more resistant to C. sinensis infection. To investigate the relationship between cytokine reaction and susceptibility to C. sinensis infection in FVB and BALB/c mice, we described both the patterns and kinetics of Th1 cytokines and Th2 cytokines in spleen cell culture. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 cytokine production in the culture supernatants of the concanavalin-A-stimulated spleen cells increased at 2-3 weeks post-infection in both strains. IL-5 production increased between 2 and 5 weeks post-infection in both strains, and reached a peak level at 2 weeks post-infection in BALB/c mice and 4 weeks post-infection in FVB mice. In contrast, gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production decreased between 2 and 4 weeks in both strains. IL-2 production increased slightly in BALB/c mice following infection, but was unchanged in FVB mice. IL-4 production over preinfection levels was significantly higher in FVB mice, whereas IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-10 production were significantly higher in BALB/c mice. The levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and blood eosinophils in both mouse strains significantly increased between 3 and 6 weeks postinfection. Serum IgE levels were significantly higher in FVB mice than in BALB/c mice. The results of this study suggest that susceptibility to C. sinensis infection is associated with Th2 cytokine production, especially IL-4 which is predominant in relatively susceptible FVB mice.