Cytokine-release kinetics of platelet-rich plasma according to various activation protocols

Y. H. Roh, W. Kim, K. U. Park, J. H. Oh

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55 Scopus citations


Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the cytokine-release kinetics of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) according to different activation protocols. Methods: Two manual preparation procedures (single-spin (SS) at 900 g for five minutes; double-spin (DS) at 900 g for five minutes and then 1500 g for 15 minutes) were performed for each of 14 healthy subjects. Both preparations were tested for platelet activation by one of three activation protocols: no activation, activation with calcium (Ca) only, or calcium with a low dose (50 IU per 1 ml PRP) of thrombin. Each preparation was divided into four aliquots and incubated for one hour, 24 hours, 72 hours, and seven days. The cytokine-release kinetics were evaluated by assessing PDGF, TGF, VEGF, FGF, IL-1, and MMP-9 concentrations with bead-based sandwich immunoassay. Results: The concentration of cytokine released from PRP varied over time and was influenced by various activation protocols. Ca-only activation had a significant effect on the DS PRPs (where the VEGF, FGF, and IL-1 concentrations were sustained) while Ca/thrombin activation had effects on both SS and DS PRPs (where the PDGF and VEGF concentrations were sustained and the TGF and FGF concentrations were short). The IL-1 content showed a significant increase with Ca-only or Ca/thrombin activation while these activations did not increase the MMP-9 concentration. Conclusion: The SS and DS methods differed in their effect on cytokine release, and this effect varied among the cytokines analysed. In addition, low dose of thrombin/calcium activation increased the overall cytokine release of the PRP preparations over seven days, relative to that with a calcium-only supplement or non-activation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-45
Number of pages9
JournalBone and Joint Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Oh et al.


  • Activation
  • Cytokine
  • Growth factor
  • Kinetics
  • Platelet-rich plasma
  • Preparation


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