Solvent stress occurs during whole-cell biocatalysis of organic chemicals. Organic substrates and/or products may accumulate in the cellular membranes of whole cells, causing structural destabilization of the membranes, which leads to disturbances in cellular carbon and energy metabolism. Here, we investigate the effect of cyclohexanone on carbon metabolism in Escherichia coli BL21 and Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032. Adding cyclohexanone to the culture medium (i.e., glucose mineral medium) resulted in a decreased specific growth rate and increased cellular maintenance energy in both strains of bacteria. Notably, carbon metabolism, which is mainly involved to increase cellular maintenance energy, was very different between the bacteria. Carbon flux into the acetic acid fermentation pathway was dominantly enhanced in E. coli, whereas the TCA cycle appeared to be activated in C. glutamicum. In fact, carbon flux into the TCA cycle in E. coli appeared to be reduced with increasing amounts of cyclohexanone in the culture medium. Metabolic engineering of E. coli cells to maintain or improve TCA cycle activity and, presumably, that of the electron transport chain, which are involved in regeneration of cofactors (e.g., NAD(P)H and ATP) and formation of toxic metabolites (e.g., acetic acid), may be useful in increasing solvent tolerance and biotransformation of organic chemicals (e.g., cyclohexanone).
- constraints-based flux analysis
- Corynebacterium glutamicum
- Escherichia coli
- solvent stress