Background: Stationary cycling is commonly used for postoperative rehabilitation of physical disabilities; however, few studies have focused on the three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of rehabilitation. This study aimed to elucidate the three-dimensional lower limb kinematics of people with healthy musculoskeletal function and the effect of sex and age on kinematics using a controlled bicycle configuration. Methods: Thirty-one healthy adults participated in the study. The position of the stationary cycle was standardized using the LeMond method by setting the saddle height to 85.5% of the participant’s inseam. The participants maintained a pedaling rate of 10–12 km/h, and the average value of three successive cycles of the right leg was used for analysis. The pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle joint motions during cycling were evaluated in the sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes. Kinematic data were normalized to 0–100% of the cycling cycle. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and k-fold cross-validation were used to analyze the data. Results: In the sagittal plane, the cycling ranges of motion (ROMs) were 1.6° (pelvis), 43.9° (hip), 75.2° (knee), and 26.9° (ankle). The coronal plane movement was observed in all joints, and the specific ROMs were 6.6° (knee) and 5.8° (ankle). There was significant internal and external rotation of the hip (ROM: 11.6°), knee (ROM: 6.6°), and ankle (ROM: 10.3°) during cycling. There was no difference in kinematic data of the pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle between the sexes (p = 0.12 to 0.95) and between different age groups (p = 0.11 to 0.96) in all anatomical planes. Conclusions: The kinematic results support the view that cycling is highly beneficial for comprehensive musculoskeletal rehabilitation. These results might help clinicians set a target of recovery ROM based on healthy and non-elite individuals and issue suitable guidelines to patients.
- Cycling kinematics
- Musculoskeletal rehabilitation
- Range of motion