Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common and serious health problem with high mortality. Treatment for HCC remains largely unsatisfactory owing to its high recurrence rates and frequent accompanying cirrhosis. In addition, the unique immune environment of the liver promotes tolerance, which, in conjunction with immune evasion by the disease, makes HCC a less promising target for conventional immunotherapy. However, recent advances in the immunotherapy have led to novel approaches to overcome these obstacles by manipulating and enhancing tumor-specific immune responses against HCC by using various modalities, such as cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint blockade. These treatments have shown both safety and promising outcomes in patients with HCC of various etiologies and tumor stages. Furthermore, combined strategies have been assessed to achieve optimal outcomes, by using immunotherapies with or without conventional treatments. This review briefly covers the background, recent advances, current issues, and future perspectives on immunotherapy in the field of HCC treatment.
- clinical trial
- hepatocellular carcinoma