Crystal water for high performance layered manganese oxide cathodes in aqueous rechargeable zinc batteries

Kwan Woo Nam, Heejin Kim, Jin Hyeok Choi, Jang Wook Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

271 Scopus citations


Aqueous zinc (Zn)-ion batteries are gaining considerable attention as grid-scale energy storage systems due to their advantages in rate performance, cost, and safety. Here, we report a layered manganese oxide that contains a high content of crystal water (∼10 wt%) as an aqueous zinc battery cathode. The interlayer crystal water can effectively screen the electrostatic interactions between Zn2+ ions and the host framework to facilitate Zn2+ diffusion while sustaining the host framework for prolonged cycles. By virtue of these 'water' effects, this material exhibits a high reversible capacity of 350 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1, along with decent cycling and rate performance, in a two-electrode cell configuration. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses jointly reveal that upon Zn2+ ion intercalation, a stable inner-sphere Zn-complex coordinated with water molecules is formed, followed by the formation of a Zn-Mn dumbbell structure, which gives a clue for the observed electrochemical performance. This work unveils the useful function of crystal water in enhancing the key electrochemical performance of emerging divalent battery electrodes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1999-2009
Number of pages11
JournalEnergy and Environmental Science
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
J. W. C. acknowledges financial support from the Samsung Research Funding Centre of Samsung Electronics under Project Number SRFC-MA1602-05.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


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