Crystal Structure of d-Psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and its Complex with True Substrate d-Fructose: A Pivotal Role of Metal in Catalysis, an Active Site for the Non-phosphorylated Substrate, and its Conformational Changes

Kwangsoo Kim, Hye Jung Kim, Deok Kun Oh, Sun Shin Cha, Sangkee Rhee

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Abstract

d-Psicose, a rare sugar produced by the enzymatic reaction of d-tagatose 3-epimerase (DTEase), has been used extensively for the bioproduction of various rare carbohydrates. Recently characterized d-psicose 3-epimerase (DPEase) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens was found to belong to the DTEase family and to catalyze the interconversion of d-fructose and d-psicose by epimerizing the C-3 position, with marked efficiency for d-psicose. The crystal structures of DPEase and its complex with the true substrate d-fructose were determined; DPEase is a tetramer and each monomer belongs to a TIM-barrel fold. The active site in each subunit is distinct from that of other TIM-barrel enzymes, which use phosphorylated ligands as the substrate. It contains a metal ion with octahedral coordination to two water molecules and four residues that are absolutely conserved across the DTEase family. Upon binding of d-fructose, the substrate displaces water molecules in the active site, with a conformation mimicking the intermediate cis-enediolate. Subsequently, Trp112 and Pro113 in the β4-α4 loop undergo significant structural changes, sealing off the active site. Structural evidence and site-directed mutagenesis of the putative catalytic residues suggest that the metal ion plays a pivotal role in catalysis by anchoring the bound d-fructose, and Glu150 and Glu244 carry out an epimerization reaction at the C-3 position.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)920-931
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Molecular Biology
Volume361
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2006

Keywords

  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens
  • crystal structure
  • d-psicose 3-epimerase
  • metal-dependent catalysis
  • mutagenesis

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