Background: The Japanese mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria has two genetic lineages in its Chinese and Japanese populations, which are considered cryptic species. However, the Korean O. oratoria populations have only been studied morphologically, and their genetic diversity pattern remains unknown. Objective: To examine the genetic diversity of the Korean O. oratoria populations to explore its cryptic diversity and underlying processes. Methods: We sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene of 107 O. oratoria individuals from 8 sampling sites in South Korea. Their genetic diversity and haplotype data were compared to previously reported data from 16 Chinese and 6 Japanese populations. Results: The haplotype network, analysis of molecular variance, FST values, and Bayesian skyline plot of the Korean O. oratoria populations confirmed that they were divided into two genetic lineages corresponding to the two previously identified cryptic species, which might be correlated to ocean currents and water temperature. In addition, the population genetic analysis indicated that both lineages had high genetic diversity. Although the Geoje region belongs to the southern group, it only contained lineage N, which could be related to the specific environmental characteristics of Geoje or the hybridization of the two lineages of O. oratoria. Conclusion: Korean O. oratoria populations have enough cryptic diversity to be described as cryptic species and are correlated with ocean currents and water temperatures. Lineage N dominance in Geoje might be related to environmental characteristics or hybridization.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIT) (No. 2021R1I1A2051574), Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2021R1A6A1A10039823), the RP-Grant 2021 of Ewha Womans University, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31872569).
© 2022, The Author(s) under exclusive licence to The Genetics Society of Korea.
- Cryptic species
- Korean population
- Ocean current
- Oratosquilla oratoria