COVID-19 restrictions and mental distress among American adults: Evidence from Corona Impact Survey (W1 and W2)

Harris Hyun Soo Kim, James Laurence

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Background: The present study examines the impact of coronavirus-related restrictions on mental health among American adults, and how this relationship varies as a function of time and two measures of vulnerability (preexisting physical symptoms and job insecurity). Methods: We draw on data from two waves of Corona Impact Survey, which were fielded in late April and early of May 2020. Multilevel models were used to analyze the hierarchically nested data. Results: Experiencing coronavirus disease-2019 restrictions significantly raise mental distress. This association is stronger for individuals with preexisting health conditions and those who worry about job prospects. These findings hold with the inclusion of region-wave covariates (number of deaths, wave dummy and aggregate measure of restrictions). Finally, there is a cross-level interaction: the restriction-distress connection is more pronounced in the second wave of data. Conclusions: Our research indicates that people who are more physically and/or financially vulnerable suffer more from the imposed restrictions, i.e. 'social isolation'. The mental health impact of coronavirus pandemic is not constant but conditional on the level of vulnerability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)704-711
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Public Health (United Kingdom)
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2020

Bibliographical note

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© 2020 The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:


  • COVID-19
  • financial insecurity
  • mental distress
  • physical vulnerability
  • social isolation


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