In 2019, an unprecedented disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged and spread across the globe. Although the rapid transmission of COVID-19 has resulted in thousands of deaths and severe lung damage, conclusive treatment is not available. However, three COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized, and two more will be approved soon, according to a World Health Organization report on December 12, 2020. Many COVID-19 patients show symptoms of acute lung injury that eventually leads to pulmonary fibrosis. Our aim in this article is to present the relationship between pulmonary fibrosis and COVID-19, with a focus on angiotensin converting enzyme-2. We also evaluate the radiological imaging methods computed tomography (CT) and chest X-ray (CXR) for visualization of patient lung condition. Moreover, we review possible therapeutics for COVID-19 using four categories: treatments related and unrelated to lung disease and treatments that have and have not entered clinical trials. Although many treatments have started clinical trials, they have some drawbacks, such as short-term and small-group testing, that need to be addressed as soon as possible.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a grant from National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grants funded by the Korean government (MSIT) (2018R1A5A2025286).
© 2021, The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea.
- Angiotensin converting enzyme-2
- COVID-19-induced lung damage
- Possible therapeutics
- Pulmonary fibrosis
- Radiological imaging method