Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis were employed to investigate the correlation between fermentation time-dependent metabolite changes in cheonggukjang, a traditional fermented soybean product, and changes in its antioxidant activity over 72h. The metabolite patterns were clearly distinguished not by strains but by fermentation time, into patterns I (0-12 h), II (12-24 h), and III (24-72 h), which appeared as distinct clusters on principal component analysis. The compounds that significantly contributed to patterns I, II, and III were soyasaponins, isoflavonoid derivatives, and isoflavonoid aglycons respectively. Partial least square analysis for metabolite to antioxidant effects showed correlations between the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay during 24-36 h, and 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) test and total phenol content (TPC) during 36-72 h. Compared with the strong negative correlations of glucosylated-isoflavonoids with DPPH, ABTS and TPC during fermentation, the isoflavonoid aglycon displayed strong positive correlations with these compounds during fermentation.
- Antioxidant effects
- Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)
- Metabolite profiling