Correlation between antioxidative activities and metabolite changes during cheonggukjang fermentation

Jiyoung Kim, Jung Nam Choi, Daejung Kang, Gun Hee Son, Young Suk Kim, Hyung Kyoon Choi, Dae Young Kwon, Choong Hwan Lee

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57 Scopus citations


Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis were employed to investigate the correlation between fermentation time-dependent metabolite changes in cheonggukjang, a traditional fermented soybean product, and changes in its antioxidant activity over 72h. The metabolite patterns were clearly distinguished not by strains but by fermentation time, into patterns I (0-12 h), II (12-24 h), and III (24-72 h), which appeared as distinct clusters on principal component analysis. The compounds that significantly contributed to patterns I, II, and III were soyasaponins, isoflavonoid derivatives, and isoflavonoid aglycons respectively. Partial least square analysis for metabolite to antioxidant effects showed correlations between the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay during 24-36 h, and 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) test and total phenol content (TPC) during 36-72 h. Compared with the strong negative correlations of glucosylated-isoflavonoids with DPPH, ABTS and TPC during fermentation, the isoflavonoid aglycon displayed strong positive correlations with these compounds during fermentation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)732-739
Number of pages8
JournalBioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2011

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by research grants from the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) for Biofoods Research of the Ministry of Science and Technology (no. M10510120003-08N1012-00310), and by the Microbial Genomics and Application Center, funded by the Korea government (MEST), by the Priority Research Centers Program (M102KK010004-08K1101-0410), and by the Basic Science Research Program, funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (20100019306) through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), and by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (no. R01-2007-000-20231-0).


  • Antioxidant effects
  • Cheonggukjang
  • Fermentation
  • Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)
  • Metabolite profiling


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