Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Soft Drinks and Risk of Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Alfred Jatho, Seung Kwon Myung, Jeongseon Kim, Sung Sik Han, Sun Young Kim, Woong Ju

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Previous observational studies have reported inconsistent findings on the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (SSSDs) and the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. This study investigated the associations between SSSD consumption and the risk of GI cancer using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: Observational epidemiological studies were searched from the PubMed and EMBASE databases until June 2021. We conducted a meta-analysis of all included studies and subgroup meta-analyses based on various factors. Results: In a meta-analysis of 27 studies with nine case-control studies and 18 cohort studies, the consumption of SSSDs was modestly associated with an increased risk of GI cancer (odds ratio [OR]/relative risk [RR]: 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.16), with a significant positive dose-response relationship. In the subgroup meta-analysis by study design, there was a significant positive association between the consumption of SSSDs and GI cancer in cohort studies (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03–1.20; n = 18), but not in case-control studies. In the subgroup meta-analysis by type of cancer, consumption of SSSDs was significantly associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR/RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.07–1.19). Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that SSSD consumption significantly increases the risk of GI cancer, specifically colorectal cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-156
Number of pages16
JournalOncology
Volume102
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Keywords

  • Case-control study
  • Cohort study
  • Gastrointestinal cancer
  • Meta-analysis
  • Sugar-sweetened soft drinks

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