Comprehensive understanding of risk and protective factors related to adolescent pregnancy in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review

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Abstract

Introduction: Adolescent pregnancy causes serious problems not only for girls, but also for their family, and society. This study aimed to understand factors related to adolescent pregnancy in low- and middle-income countries using a multilevel approach adopted by Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Methods: A total of 11,933 studies published in between 2000 and 2015 were identified in 4 databases. Based on inclusion criteria and risk of bias assessment, a total of 67 articles were retrieved for analysis. Results: Thematic analysis revealed that early marriage, sexual risk behaviors, substance use, family experience of adolescent birth, peer pressure, and lack of sex education and health service increased the hazards of adolescent pregnancy. Communication with parents, school activities, community meetings, laws, and government policies protected adolescents from pregnancy. Conclusions: Results of this study suggests that the background of adolescents and complex interactions among various factors should be considered for pregnancy. In future research, mixed-method that supplements the methodological weaknesses of previous studies is also recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)180-188
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Adolescence
Volume69
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation , United States, Grant No. OPP1055880 and No. OPP1150374 , and by Ewha Womans University , Republic of Korea, Grant No. 1-2015-2036-001-1 .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 The Authors

Keywords

  • Adolescent birth
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Low and middle-income countries
  • Risk and protective factors
  • Systematic review

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