Components of Spatial Thinking: Evidence from a Spatial Thinking Ability Test

Jongwon Lee, Robert Bednarz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

105 Scopus citations


This article introduces the development and validation of the spatial thinking ability test (STAT). The STAT consists of sixteen multiple-choice questions of eight types. The STAT was validated by administering it to a sample of 532 junior high, high school, and university students. Factor analysis using principal components extraction was applied to identify underlying spatial thinking components and to evaluate the construct validity of the STAT. Spatial components identified through factor analysis only partly coincided with spatial concepts used to develop the questions that compose the STAT and with the components of spatial thinking hypothesized by other researchers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15-26
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Geography
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012


  • factor analysis
  • spatial thinking
  • spatial thinking ability test (STAT)


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