The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the impact of surgery on the outcomes and qualities of life (QOL) in patients with intestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We assessed 345 patients with either localized or disseminated intestinal DLBCL and compared them according to treatment: surgical resection followed by chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone. In patients with localized disease (Lugano stage I/II), surgery plus chemotherapy yielded a lower relapse rate (15.3%) than did chemotherapy alone (36.8%, P < .001). The 3-year overall survival rate was 91% in the surgery plus chemotherapy group and 62% in the chemotherapy-alone group (P < .001). The predominant pattern in the chemotherapy group was local relapse (27.6%). When rituximab was used with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP), there was no improvement of the outcomes in patients treated with primary surgical resection. The QOL of patients who underwent surgery and chemotherapy was lower than chemotherapy alone, but its difference was acceptable. Multivariate analysis showed that surgical resection plus chemotherapy was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Surgical resection followed by chemotherapy might be an effective treatment strategy with acceptable QOL deterioration for localized intestinal DLBCL. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01043302.