Comparison of reminder-preference test to difference and preference tests: An affective approach yielding d-prime results for sensory difference and preference

Min A. Kim, Myung Shin Kim, Ye Jin Lee, Hye Seong Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Preserving the sensory characteristics of reformulated products is crucial for a successful market launch. This underscores the need for precise measurement of consumer perceptions regarding sensory differences and preferences. One approach to assess these aspects is through the utilization of the reminder-preference test, an affective difference-preference test employing the A-Not A with the reminder (A-Not AR) test design. This test measures sensory differences and preferences by employing a consolidated d′ index rooted in signal detection theory and Thurstonian modeling. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the reminder-preference test in measuring the degree of sensory differences and interpreting their relevance concerning consumer preference. To achieve this, the test was compared with both the A-Not AR difference test and the 2-alternative choice (2-AC) preference test. A lemon-lime-flavored carbonated drink and two types of reformulated samples were tested. Young female adult subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Each took one of the following three tests: the reminder-preference test, the reminder test of A-Not AR, or the 2-AC preference test. The reference framing in the reminder-preference and reminder tests was preceded by subjects watching the product's advertisement to assist them in framing evaluative criteria. This would also facilitate memorizing the perception of the reference product. Test sensitivity in reminder-preference matched reminder and 2-AC tests for sensory differences and preferences. Affective framing enhanced sensitivity to sensory differences resulting in a higher d′ value of the sensory difference than the preference. From the results, it was possible to interpret that the measured sensory differences did not affect consumer preference. The test also illuminated brand marketing effects on preferences through branded reference comparison. Thus, the reminder-preference test shows potential as an efficient sensory method to measure sensory differences and the preference of consumers, while concurrently measuring the effects of marketing on the consumers. Therefore, it can assist in making efficient business decisions regarding product reformulations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113441
JournalFood Research International
StatePublished - Nov 2023

Bibliographical note

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  • Affective framing
  • Branded test
  • Consumer sensory test
  • Marketing effect
  • Paired-preference test
  • Reformulation
  • Reminder-preference test


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