OBJECTIVES: Omeprazole is a potent inhibitor of gastric acid secretion. Recently it was reported that p.o. omeprazole therapy reduced the rebleeding rate in patients with nonbleeding visible vessels or adherent clots. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether p.o. administration of omeprazole can be an effective alternative to endoscopic injection therapy in peptic ulcers with stigmata of recent hemorrhage. METHODS: A total of 101 patients who had peptic ulcer bleeding based on endoscopic findings of nonbleeding visible vessels or fresh adherent clots were randomly assigned to receive omeprazole (40 mg p.o. every 12 h) or endoscopic ethanol injection therapy. RESULTS: Rebleeding rates were 22.9% (11 of 48) in the omeprazole group and 20.8% (11 of 53) in the endoscopic injection therapy group. The rebleeding rates of clinical significance were 14.6% and 13.2%, respectively. There was no significance difference in the rebleeding rate, requirement for surgery, total units of blood transfused, or mortality between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Oral omeprazole administration is comparable to endoscopic ethanol injection therapy for prevention of rebleeding in patients with nonbleeding visible vessels or adherent clots.