Objective: Isoflavones and lignans are phytoestrogens that have recently gained interest as dietary factors related to prostatic diseases. However, no data on the concentrations in prostate tissue in humans is available. Therefore, the concentrations of isoflavones and lignans in plasma and prostatic tissues according to the prostate volume were compared to determine their possible effect on the benign prostatic growth. Methods: Fasting plasma and prostatic tissue specimens were acquired from 25 men over 50 years of age with similar normal dietary habits and no previous history of drug intake that could affect the isoflavones and lignans levels. The tissue was acquired either during a transurethral resection of the prostate in 15 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with prostate volume over 40 ml or during a radical cytoprostatectomy in 10 patients with bladder cancer with a prostate volume <25 ml, who were used as the controls. Quantitative analysis of the isoflavones, specifically equol, daidzein and genistein and lignans, particularly enterodiol and enterolactone, was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The mean prostatic concentrations of enterodiol, enterolactone, equol and daidzein in the BPH and the control groups were similar. However, the mean prostatic concentration of genistein was significantly lower in the BPH group than in the control group (65.43 ± 17.05 vs 86.96 ± 37.75 ng/ml, respectively, p=0.032). The plasma concentration of isoflavones and lignans in the two groups were comparable. Conclusion: Isoflavones, but not lignans, have some influence the benign prostatic growth, and the prostatic concentration of genistein possibly has the closest association among them. More studies to further clarify the roles and mechanisms of isoflavone action on BPH including pharmacokinetic studies are recommended.