Biogenic amines (BAs), which are mainly generated by the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids, are important nitrogen compounds in fermented foods because of their toxicology. However, amino acids, the precursors of BAs, also play an important role in generating volatile and non-volatile metabolites, which are strongly associated with quality indicators for foods. Bacillus subtilis is one of dominant fermentative microorganism in various fermented foods and is well known as a BA-producing bacterium. In this study, B. subtilis strains which have different BAs-producing capacities, higher level of BAs production strain (BH) and lower level of BAs production strain (BL), were applied to compare the formations of volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles according to cultivation times. In this study, histamine, putrescine, and spermidine were detected in all strains, however, 2-phenylethylamine was detected only in BH. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to investigate the difference of metabolic profiles according to strains. In BH, some amino acids (phenylalanine, leucine, and threonine) and related volatile metabolites (3-methylbutanoic acid, pyrazines, styrene, and 1H-indole) were produced higher levels. On the other hand, BL produced significantly higher contents of metabolites associated with metabolism of fatty acids and nucleotides. It is necessary to consider the formation of metabolites in terms of quality as well as that of BAs during fermentation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant (NRF-2020R1A2C2004724) and project BK21 FOUR (Fostering Outstanding Universities for Research) (No. 4299990914600) funded by the Korea government (MSIT).
© 2023 by the authors.
- Bacillus subtilis
- biogenic amines
- non-volatile metabolite
- volatile metabolite