This study aims to improve the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in the sea breeze circulation using the micro-Genetic Algorithm (micro-GA). We found the optimal combination of four physical parameterization schemes related to the sea breeze system, including planetary boundary layer (PBL), land surface, shortwave radiation, and longwave radiation, in the WRF model coupled with the micro-GA (WRF-µGA system). The optimization was performed with respect to surface meteorological variables (2 m temperature, 2 m relative humidity, 10 m wind speed and direction) and a vertical wind profile (wind speed and direction), simultaneously for three sea breeze cases over the northeastern coast of South Korea. The optimized set of parameterization schemes out of the WRF-µGA system includes the Mellor–Yamada–Nakanishi– Niino level-2.5 (MYNN2) for PBL, the Noah land surface model with multiple parameterization options (Noah-MP) for land surface, and the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG) for both shortwave and longwave radiation. The optimized set compared with the various other sets of parameterization schemes for the sea breeze circulations showed up to 29 % for the improvement ratio in terms of the normalized RMSE considering all meteorological variables.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research is supported under the grant of Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2018R1A6A1A08025520). It is partly supported by the NRF grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (NRF-2021R1A2C1095535).
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Coastal regions
- Fitness function
- Numerical weather prediction model
- Optimization algorithm
- Sea breeze circulations