Introduction: Syndecan-2 expression is elevated during chronic inflammation and cancer development, and its shedding is observed in cancer patients. However, it remained unknown whether inflammation triggers syndecan-2 shedding. Methods: The colitis model was produced in C57BL/6 mice by oral administration of 2–3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water. Syndecan-2 and MMP-7 expression levels in tissues and cells were detected by real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Shed syndecan-2 levels were detected by slot blotting. For tissue culture, colon tissues were divided into proximal, transverse, and distal parts, and incubated in culture media. Results: In C57BL/6 mice with DSS-induced colitis, syndecan-2 shedding began to increase after week 12 of chronic inflammation and continued to increase at week 15. The level of shed syndecan-2 correlated with the colocalization of syndecan-2 and MMP-7 in distal colon tissues. The mRNA expression of IL-6 was increased specifically in trans-distal colon tissues from weeks 9 to 15. IL-6 induced syndecan-2 expression and shedding and MMP-7 expression in ex vivo-cultured distal colon tissues and adenoma cell lines derived from the distal colon. IL-6 treatment induced STAT3 phosphorylation and MMP-7 expression in DLD-1 cells. The application of MMP-7 to ex vivo-cultured colon tissues increased the shedding of syndecan-2 to the culture medium. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that chronic inflammation induces syndecan-2 shedding via the site-specific colocalization of syndecan-2 with MMP-7 in the distal colon.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (2019R1A2C2009011).
© 2021 Hong et al.
- Chronic inflammation