The aim of this study was to determine how ultra-short anatomic cementless vs cemented femoral stems affect the survival of primary total hip arthroplasties in octogenarians. Specifically, the authors investigated whether ultra-short anatomic cementless and cemented femoral components would have similar (1) functional results, (2) radiographic results, (3) revision and survival rates, and (4) complication rates in octogenarians. The authors evaluated 93 consecutive octogenarians (98 hips) in the ultra-short stem group (mean age, 86.5±5.3 years) and 78 consecutive octogenarians (92 hips) in the cemented stem group (mean age, 85.7±5.8 years). The average follow-up was 8.1 years (range, 5-12 years) in the ultra-short anatomic cementless stem group and 7.8 years (range, 5-11 years) in the cemented stem group. Mean preoperative (39 vs 37 points) and postoperative (81 vs 83 points) Harris hip scores were similar in the 2 groups (P=.131 and .128, respectively). The incidence of thigh pain was 0% in both groups. At final follow-up, mean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores (18 vs 14 points) and University of California, Los Angeles activity scores (4.3 vs 4.5 points) were similar in the 2 groups. The revision rate was 3% (3 hips) in the ultra-short stem group and 3% (3 hips) in the cemented stem group. Survivorship of the femoral stem was 97.3% at 8.1 years in the ultra-short stem group and 97.9% at 7.8 years in the cemented stem group (P=.136). Ultra-short anatomic cementless and cemented stems obtained rigid fixation in octogenarians. However, the incidence of undisplaced periprosthetic calcar fracture intraoperatively was significantly higher (P=.003) in the cemented stem group.