Werecently reported that autologous adipogenic differentiated adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can potentially be used as an effective and safe therapy for soft-tissue regeneration. In the present study, we investigated whether adipogenic differentiated ASCs can be used for allogenic applications to enlarge their therapeutic use. The allogenic immune response of adipogenic differentiated ASCs was investigated by flow cytometry and mixed lymphocyte culture. To determine whether adipogenic differentiated ASCs can form new adipose tissue without immune rejection, these cells were implanted subcutaneously into allo-or xenogenic recipient mice. In addition, the safety of the allogenic implantation of adipogenic differentiated ASCs was explored in a phase I clinical study. Adipogenic differentiated ASCs do not express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and costimulatory molecules, and the expression levels of MHC class I decreased after differentiation. In addition, these cells do not elicit an immune response againstMHC-mismatched allogenic lymphocytes and formed new adipose tissue without immune rejection in the subcutaneous region ofMHC-mismatched mice.Moreover, these cells did not induce clinically significant local and systemic immune responses or adverse events in the subcutaneous region of donor-independent healthy subjects. These results suggest that adipogenic differentiated ASCs can beused as a “universal donor” for soft-tissue engineering in MHC-mismatched recipients.
- Adipogenic differentiated ASCs
- Adipose-derived stem cells
- Allogenic transplantation
- Autologous transplantation